Surface water CO2 parameters collected by Alaskan citizens around the northern Gulf of Alaska from April 2015 to August 2017

pCO2 and TCO2 measurements were made on surface seawater collected by tribal citizens and non-oceanographic agencies around Kenai Peninsula in the northern Gulf of Alaska from 2015 to 2017. Seawater was collected using bucket grabs or Niskin bottles and drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles. Sample bottles were rinsed 3 times and then carefully filled with sample seawater as to not introduce bubbles into the sample. Sample temperature was then recorded using NIST traceable thermometers (VWR PN 23609-176) and fixed with 40 µL of mercuric chloride before being crimp-sealed using polyethylene-lined metal caps. Finally, temperature and salinity were determined at the time of sample analysis at the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) using NIST traceable thermometers and a YSI MultiLab 4010-1 with a MultiLab IS 4310 conductivity and temperature probe. The YSI probe was calibrated using certified reference materials of known salinity prior to seawater sample analysis. For detailed protocols on sample collection, data processing including CO2 system determination, and quality assurance, please see Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). CO2 system parameters (pHT, pCO2, aragonite saturation) were computed using the carbonate acid dissociation constants of Lueker et al. (2000). Note alkalinity (Alk) is assumed to consist of carbonate, bicarbonate, borate, hydroxide, and hydrogen ions; neglecting the influence of nutrients and organic acids. The effort to collect these data are part of the Hakai Institute’s directive to advance the understanding of carbon cycling and coastal processes around the Gulf of Alaska with specific emphasis on ocean acidification. Cite as: Weekes, C., W. Evans, J. Ramsey, J. Hetrick. (2018). Surface water CO2 parameters collected by Alaskan citizens around the Gulf of Alaska from April 2015 to August 2017. Version 1.0. Hakai Institute. Dataset. [access date]. Type of Study: Distributed surface water measurements. Temporal Coverage: April 5, 2015 to August 19, 2017. Spatial Coverage: Surface seawater collected at select docks, beach sites and transect stations distributed around Kenai Peninsula in the northern Gulf of Alaska (Figure 1). Geographic Names: Kenai Peninsula, Prince William Sound, northern Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean Location of organism collection: N/A Platforms: Village docks, beach sites or vessels Version: 1.0 Submission Date: November 20, 2018 Filename: AK_citizen_science_2015_2017.txt Column Header Information: (1) year (2) month (3) day (4) hour (5) minute (6) matlab_serial_date_number (7) latitude (8) longitude (9) depth (10) NIST temperature (ºC) (11) YSI salinity (PSS-78) (12) CRM corrected TCO2 (µmol kg-1) (13) Alkalinity (µmol kg-1) (14) pCO2@in-situT (µatm) (15) pHT@in-situT (16) aragonite saturation (17) group ID (18) pCO2@analysisT (µatm) (19) NIST analysis temperature (ºC) (20) quality flags Description of group ID: 1 = Seldovia Village Tribe, 2 = National Parks Service, 3 = Prince William Sound Science Center, 4 = Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, 5 = Valdez, 6 = Nanwalek Description of quality flags: 1 = good data, 2 = replicate, 3 = questionable, 4 = not a number (NaN). Note questionable replicates receive a flag change from 2 to 3. Data were flagged as questionable if the pCO2@analysisT exceeded pCO2 determined from directly measured TCO2 and alkalinity predicted by the regional GOA relationship (Evans et al. 2015) by 2x the hypothetical sensitivity of pCO2 to the RMSE in Alk(S) across the expected Alk:TCO2 range. Description of CO2 system parameters: Total inorganic carbon Abbreviation: CRM corrected TCO2 Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: Measurements from discrete seawater sample bottle. In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In-situ observation. Measured or calculated: measured TCO2 with correction factor from analysis of certified reference material (CRM; A. Dickson) applied. Correction factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.00. Sampling instrument: Bucket grabs and Niskin bottle triggered by messenger. Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A. Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected at the surface using buckets or Niskin bottles, depending on the capacity of the citizen science group. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles either by hand or by silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater TCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at APSH via acidification and flow-balanced gas stripping followed by a non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: triplicate samples were collected by most citizen science groups. Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450 and 750 ppm; Praxair Distribution Inc.). TCO2 calibrated using solutions of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in deionized water prepared to have target TCO2 concentrations (nominally 800, 1600 and 2400 µmol kg-1) with Alk adjusted to give solution pCO2 near that of ambient room air. Standardization frequency: at the start and end of each daily analysis sequence. CRM manufacturer: A. Dickson, Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Poison name: Mercuric chloride. Poison volume: 40 µL Poison correction: Saturated solution. Uncertainty: 0.3% Quality flag convention: Defined above. Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the “Fattening Line,” Willipa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Research institution: Hakai Institute Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at analysis temperature Abbreviation: pCO2@analysisT Unit: µatm Observation type: measurements from discrete seawater sample bottles. In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In-situ observation. Measured or calculated: calculated from measured CO2 mole fractions (xCO2) and ambient atmospheric pressure Sampling instrument: Bucket grabs and Niskin bottle triggered by messenger. Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A. Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected at the surface using buckets or Niskin bottles, depending on the capacity of the citizen science group. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles either by hand or by silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater pCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at APSH via recirculated-headspace gas equilibration and non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: triplicate samples were collected by most citizen science groups. Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450 and 750 ppm; Praxair Distribution Inc.). CRM manufacturer: Praxair Distribution Inc. Poison name: Mercuric chloride. Poison volume: 40 µL Poison correction: Saturated solution. Uncertainty: 1.5% Quality flag convention: Defined above. Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the “Fattening Line,” Willipa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Research institution: Hakai Institute Alkalinity Abbreviation: Alkalinity Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: Derived from direct measurements. In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In-situ observation. Measured or calculated: calculated from pCO2@analysisT and TCO2 adjusted to account for the change due to bubbling headspace gas through the sample (Wanninkhof and Thoning, 1993) using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: Defined above. Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the “Fattening Line,” Willipa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Wanninkhof, R., and Thonin, K. (1993). Measurement of fugacity of CO2 in surface water using continuous and discrete sampling methods. Marine Chemistry 44, 189-204; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute pCO2 at in-situ temperature Abbreviation: pCO2@in-situT Unit: µatm Observation type: Derived from direct measurements. In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In-situ observation. Measured or calculated: Calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, alkalinity, YSI salinity and NIST temperature using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: Defined above. Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the “Fattening Line,” Willipa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute pH on the total hydrogen ion scale Abbreviation: pHT Unit: Unit less Observation type: Derived from direct measurements. In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In-situ observation. Measured or calculated: Calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, alkalinity, YSI salinity and NIST temperature using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: Defined above. Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the “Fattening Line,” Willipa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute Aragonite saturation Abbreviation: Aragonite saturation Unit: Unit less Observation type: Derived from direct measurements. In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In-situ observation Measured or calculated: Calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, alkalinity, YSI salinity and NIST temperature using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: Defined above. Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the “Fattening Line,” Willipa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute Researcher Contact: Please direct questions regarding these data or requests for processing descriptions to Wiley Evans (wiley.evans@hakai.org). Research Institution: Hakai Institute

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Metadata Reference Date(s) November 20, 2018, 21:51 (UTC) (Lastupdate)
Dataset Reference Date(s) November 19, 2018 (Creation)
November 19, 2018 (Publication)
Frequency of Update As Needed

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Field Value
Ocean Variables Other
Scope Dataset
Status On Going
Topic Category
  • environment
  • geoscientificInformation
  • oceans
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Point of Contact
  • Name: Wiley Evans
    Affiliation: Hakai Institute
    Contact Info Email: data@hakai.org
    Role: Point of Contact
  • Name: Wiley Evans
    Affiliation: Hakai Institute
    Contact Info Email: data@hakai.org
    Role: Point of Contact
Responsible Party
  • Organisation Name / Affiliation: Hakai Institute
    Contact Info Email: data@hakai.org
    Role: Resource Provider
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North Bounding Latitude 61.89059635
South Bounding Latitude 58.42955383
East Bounding Longitude -145.36907065
West Bounding Longitude -153.45020164
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Default Locale English
Citation identifier
Code: http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.715793
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