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Title {'en': 'Observed stream flow from seven small coastal watersheds in British Columbia, Canada, Sept 2013 – April 2019 Version 4.1', 'fr': "Écoulement des cours d'eau observé à partir de sept petits bassins versants côtiers de la Colombie-Britannique, Canada, septembre 2013 à avril 2019 Version 4.1"}
URL ca-cioos_ed3c5cb4-e6b0-4c8a-808e-3583a9a6cfde
Description {'en': "General field methods\nIn natural streams it is not possible to continuously measure stream discharge, thus an indirect approach was used: river height (stage) was continuously measured at a gauging station using a pressure transducer and periodic discharge measurements were taken along the range of potential stages to develop a stage-discharge rating curve. Detailed description of the measurement methods outlined below can be found in the supplement section of Oliver et al. (2017). \nPressure transducers were installed in the fall of 2013 at watershed 708 and in the fall of 2014 at the other watersheds (Table 1). Low flows were manually measured using the velocity-area method, with either a Swoffer Current Velocimeter or a Sontek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Stream flows, generally greater than 0.5 m3/s, were measured using the salt dilution method, either manually (dry salt) or remotely (starting in the fall of 2015) using a fully automated system. The automated salt dilution (auto-salt) system releases pre-defined volumes of salt solution at pre-defined water stages, with two electrical conductivity sensors permanently located down-stream, to measure the salt wave passing through. Data are available in near real-time using the Hakai Telemetry Network (www.hakai.org/technology/#science-1). A calibration factor, required for the salt dilution method, was manually calculated at a minimum twice per barrel refill of salt solution, once at the initial fill and the other with the remaining solution before re-fill. \n\u2003\nGeneral data QC and analysis\nStage-discharge rating curves are not static but shift over time due to changes in the morphology of river channels, often associated with flood events. Therefore, rating curves are updated regularly. Korver et al. (2018) developed the first rating curves in 2015 and performed a detailed analysis of uncertainty of these rating curves. A concise description of rating curve plotting methods can be found in the supplement section of Oliver et al. (2017). However, this method has been substantially altered since and a summary of the current method used is described below.\nAll discharge measurements are assigned a relative uncertainty, based on fluctuations in the flow velocity profile (for area-velocity method), or based on the uncertainty in the volume of salt solution, the EC sensor resolution and the EC sensor calibration factor (for salt dilution method). Measurements with uncertainties higher than 20%, with noise or malfunctioning conductivity sensors, or with high uncertainties in stage monitoring are excluded from further analysis. The remaining stage-discharge measurements are plotted using a LOWESS regression that accounts for scatter in the stage-discharge data and multi-section rating curves. Uncertainty of derived discharge data is quantified by plotting confidence intervals (CI) around the rating curve. Following the methodology proposed by Coxon et al. (2015), these CI's are derived from 500 curve fitting results of LOWESS regressions on a randomized set of stage-discharge measurements and their maximum and minimum value of error. Using LOWESS regression is considered an improvement from using fixed power-law shaped functions (previously used method), as LOWESS has no defined shape and can therefore fit data more precise. Especially the determination of confidence intervals using LOWESS provides more realistic results as the previous CI algorithm is intended for linear functions and therefore needs to be log transformed. This results in unrealistic small CI's in the low flow end and unrealistic high CI's in the high flow end of the rating curve.\nThis discharge time-series was created using 5-minute average stage measurements that are Quality Controlled (QC), flagged and corrected where needed (Table 2). Generally, data gaps that were filled as well as noisy, faulty data that were corrected were assigned an ‘EV’ – Estimated Value flag. Suspicious data points that could not be corrected and estimated were assigned an ‘SVC’ – Suspicious Value Caution flag. All other data points were flagged ‘AV’ – Accepted Value. QC flags assigned to stage data were automatically copied to the corresponding 5-minute discharge calculations. Only flows greater than the highest measured discharge were assigned an additional 'SVC' flag, because the extrapolation of a rating curve beyond a set of measurements is usually highly uncertain and can greatly over or under estimate discharge. \nHourly, daily, monthly and yearly discharge rates, as well as hourly, daily, monthly and yearly discharge volumes are calculated from 5-minute discharge data as described in Table 3.", 'fr': "Méthodes générales sur le terrain\nDans les cours d'eau naturels, il n'est pas possible de mesurer en continu le débit du cours d'eau, c'est pourquoi une approche indirecte a été utilisée\xa0: la hauteur de la rivière (étape) a été mesurée en continu à une station de jaugeage à l'aide d'un transducteur de pression et des mesures de débit périodiques ont été prises le long de la plage des étapes potentielles pour développer courbe de débit. Une description détaillée des méthodes de mesure décrites ci-dessous se trouve dans la section supplément d'Oliver et al. (2017). \nDes capteurs de pression ont été installés à l'automne 2013 dans le bassin versant 708 et à l'automne 2014 dans les autres bassins versants (tableau 1). Les faibles débits ont été mesurés manuellement à l'aide de la méthode vitesse-surface, à l'aide d'un vélocimètre à courant Swoffer ou d'un vélocimètre Doppler acoustique Sontek. Les débits des cours d'eau, généralement supérieurs à 0,5 m3/s, ont été mesurés à l'aide de la méthode de dilution du sel, soit manuellement (sel sec), soit à distance (à partir de l'automne 2015) à l'aide d'un système entièrement automatisé. Le système automatisé de dilution du sel (auto-sel) libère des volumes prédéfinis de solution saline à des niveaux d'eau prédéfinis, avec deux sondes de conductivité électrique situées en permanence en aval, pour mesurer la vague de sel qui passe à travers. Les données sont disponibles en temps quasi réel à l'aide du réseau de télémétrie Hakai (www.hakai.org/technology/ #science -1). Un facteur d'étalonnage, requis pour la méthode de dilution au sel, a été calculé manuellement à au moins deux fois par recharge de baril de solution saline, une fois au remplissage initial et l'autre avec la solution restante avant le remplissage. \n \nCQ et analyse des données générales\nLes courbes d'évaluation du débit par étapes ne sont pas statiques mais changent dans le temps en raison de changements dans la morphologie des chenaux fluviaux, souvent associés à des inondations. Par conséquent, les courbes de notation sont mises à jour régulièrement. Korver et al. (2018) ont développé les premières courbes d'évaluation en 2015 et ont effectué une analyse détaillée de l'incertitude de ces courbes d'évaluation. Une description concise des méthodes de traçage de la courbe d'évaluation se trouve dans la section supplément d'Oliver et al. (2017). Cependant, cette méthode a été sensiblement modifiée depuis et un résumé de la méthode actuelle utilisée est décrit ci-dessous.\nToutes les mesures de débit se voient attribuer une incertitude relative, basée sur les fluctuations du profil de vitesse d'écoulement (pour la méthode surface-vitesse), ou sur la base de l'incertitude du volume de solution saline, de la résolution du capteur CE et du facteur d'étalonnage du capteur CE (pour la méthode de dilution au sel). Les mesures avec des incertitudes supérieures à 20\xa0%, avec des capteurs de bruit ou de conductivité défectueux, ou avec des incertitudes élevées dans la surveillance des étages sont exclues d'une analyse plus approfondie. Les autres mesures de débit de l'étage sont tracées à l'aide d'une régression LOWESS qui tient compte de la dispersion dans les données de débit de l'étage et les courbes d'évaluation multi-sections. L'incertitude des données dérivées sur les débits est quantifiée en traçant les intervalles de confiance (IC) autour de la courbe d'évaluation. Suivant la méthodologie proposée par Coxon et al. (2015), ces IC sont dérivés de 500 résultats d'ajustement de courbe de régressions LOWESS sur un ensemble aléatoire de mesures de débit par étapes et leurs valeurs d'erreur maximale et minimale. L'utilisation de la régression LOWESS est considérée comme une amélioration par rapport à l'utilisation de fonctions en forme de loi de puissance fixe (méthode utilisée précédemment), car LOWESS n'a pas de forme définie et peut donc ajuster les données avec plus de précision. En particulier, la détermination des intervalles de confiance à l'aide de LOWESS fournit des résultats plus réalistes, car l'algorithme d'IC précédent est destiné aux fonctions linéaires et doit donc être transformé logarithmique. Il en résulte de petits IC irréalistes dans le bas débit et des IC élevés irréalistes dans l'extrémité haut débit de la courbe de notation.\nCette série chronologique de rejets a été créée à l'aide de mesures d'étapes moyennes de 5 minutes qui sont contrôlées par la qualité (CQ), signalées et corrigées au besoin (tableau 2). En général, les lacunes de données qui ont été comblées ainsi que les données bruyantes et défectueuses qui ont été corrigées ont reçu un indicateur «\xa0EV\xa0» — Valeur estimée. Les points de données suspects qui n'ont pas pu être corrigés et estimés ont reçu un indicateur «\xa0SVC\xa0» — Mise en garde des valeurs suspectes. Tous les autres points de données étaient marqués «\xa0AV\xa0» — Valeur acceptée. Les indicateurs de CQ attribués aux données d'étape ont été automatiquement copiés dans les calculs de débit correspondants de 5 minutes. Seuls les débits supérieurs au débit mesuré le plus élevé ont reçu un indicateur «\xa0SVC\xa0» supplémentaire, car l'extrapolation d'une courbe d'évaluation au-delà d'un ensemble de mesures est généralement très incertaine et peut largement surestimer ou sous-estimer le débit. \nLes taux de rejet horaires, quotidiens, mensuels et annuels, ainsi que les volumes de rejet horaires, quotidiens, mensuels et annuels sont calculés à partir des données de rejet de 5 minutes décrites dans le tableau 3."}
Keywords {'en': ['oceans', 'carbon', 'discharge', 'water', 'hydrograph', 'stream', 'doc', 'rack', 'high-flow', 'other', 'watersheds', 'other'], 'fr': ['autre']}
Ocean Variables Other
Citation [{\"type\": \"dataset\", \"id\": \"ca.cioos_ed3c5cb4-e6b0-4c8a-808e-3583a9a6cfde\", \"author\": [{\"given\": \"Maartje C.\", \"family\": \"Korver\"}, {\"given\": \"William C.\", \"family\": \"Floyd\"}, {\"given\": \"Ray\", \"family\": \"Brunsting\"}], \"issued\": [{\"date-parts\": [\"2020\", \"01\", \"18\"]}], \"abstract\": \"General field methods\nIn natural streams it is not possible to continuously measure stream discharge, thus an indirect approach was used: river height (stage) was continuously measured at a gauging station using a pressure transducer and periodic discharge measurements were taken along the range of potential stages to develop a stage-discharge rating curve. Detailed description of the measurement methods outlined below can be found in the supplement section of Oliver et al. (2017). \nPressure transducers were installed in the fall of 2013 at watershed 708 and in the fall of 2014 at the other watersheds (Table 1). Low flows were manually measured using the velocity-area method, with either a Swoffer Current Velocimeter or a Sontek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Stream flows, generally greater than 0.5 m3/s, were measured using the salt dilution method, either manually (dry salt) or remotely (starting in the fall of 2015) using a fully automated system. The automated salt dilution (auto-salt) system releases pre-defined volumes of salt solution at pre-defined water stages, with two electrical conductivity sensors permanently located down-stream, to measure the salt wave passing through. Data are available in near real-time using the Hakai Telemetry Network (www.hakai.org/technology/#science-1). A calibration factor, required for the salt dilution method, was manually calculated at a minimum twice per barrel refill of salt solution, once at the initial fill and the other with the remaining solution before re-fill. \n\u2003\nGeneral data QC and analysis\nStage-discharge rating curves are not static but shift over time due to changes in the morphology of river channels, often associated with flood events. Therefore, rating curves are updated regularly. Korver et al. (2018) developed the first rating curves in 2015 and performed a detailed analysis of uncertainty of these rating curves. A concise description of rating curve plotting methods can be found in the supplement section of Oliver et al. (2017). However, this method has been substantially altered since and a summary of the current method used is described below.\nAll discharge measurements are assigned a relative uncertainty, based on fluctuations in the flow velocity profile (for area-velocity method), or based on the uncertainty in the volume of salt solution, the EC sensor resolution and the EC sensor calibration factor (for salt dilution method). Measurements with uncertainties higher than 20%, with noise or malfunctioning conductivity sensors, or with high uncertainties in stage monitoring are excluded from further analysis. The remaining stage-discharge measurements are plotted using a LOWESS regression that accounts for scatter in the stage-discharge data and multi-section rating curves. Uncertainty of derived discharge data is quantified by plotting confidence intervals (CI) around the rating curve. Following the methodology proposed by Coxon et al. (2015), these CI's are derived from 500 curve fitting results of LOWESS regressions on a randomized set of stage-discharge measurements and their maximum and minimum value of error. Using LOWESS regression is considered an improvement from using fixed power-law shaped functions (previously used method), as LOWESS has no defined shape and can therefore fit data more precise. Especially the determination of confidence intervals using LOWESS provides more realistic results as the previous CI algorithm is intended for linear functions and therefore needs to be log transformed. This results in unrealistic small CI's in the low flow end and unrealistic high CI's in the high flow end of the rating curve.\nThis discharge time-series was created using 5-minute average stage measurements that are Quality Controlled (QC), flagged and corrected where needed (Table 2). Generally, data gaps that were filled as well as noisy, faulty data that were corrected were assigned an \u2018EV\u2019 \u2013 Estimated Value flag. Suspicious data points that could not be corrected and estimated were assigned an \u2018SVC\u2019 \u2013 Suspicious Value Caution flag. All other data points were flagged \u2018AV\u2019 \u2013 Accepted Value. QC flags assigned to stage data were automatically copied to the corresponding 5-minute discharge calculations. Only flows greater than the highest measured discharge were assigned an additional 'SVC' flag, because the extrapolation of a rating curve beyond a set of measurements is usually highly uncertain and can greatly over or under estimate discharge. \nHourly, daily, monthly and yearly discharge rates, as well as hourly, daily, monthly and yearly discharge volumes are calculated from 5-minute discharge data as described in Table 3.\", \"publisher\": \"Hakai Institute\", \"title\": \"Observed stream flow from seven small coastal watersheds in British Columbia, Canada, Sept 2013 \u2013 April 2019 Version 4.1\", \"DOI\": \"10.21966/zvwf-qn04\", \"language\": \"en\", \"URL\": \"https://catalogue.hakai.org/dataset/ca-cioos_ed3c5cb4-e6b0-4c8a-808e-3583a9a6cfde?local=en\"}]
License CC-BY-4.0
Scope Dataset
Status On Going
Topic Category oceans
Associated Datasets
Metadata Dates
Metadata Date 1
Date
2022-03-25
Type
Publication
Metadata Date 2
Date
2022-03-25
Type
Revision
Resource Dates
Resource Date 1
Date
2013-09-08
Type
Creation
Resource Date 2
Date
2019-05-11
Type
Publication
Resource Date 3
Date
2020-01-18
Type
Revision
Maintenance and update frequency As Needed
Maintenance Note Generated from https://cioos-siooc.github.io/metadata-entry-form
Point of Contact
Point of Contact 1
Name
William C. Floyd
Affiliation
Hakai Institute - Vancouver Island University
Email
Bill.Floyd@viu.ca
Role
  • Custodian
  • Point of Contact
Responsible Party
Responsible Party 1
Name
Maartje C. Korver
Affiliation
Hakai Institute - McGill University
Email
maartje.korver@mail.mcgill.ca
Role
  • Author
  • Owner
Responsible Party 2
Name
William C. Floyd
Affiliation
Hakai Institute - Vancouver Island University
Email
Bill.Floyd@viu.ca
Role
Originator
Responsible Party 3
Name
Ray Brunsting
Affiliation
Hakai Institute
Email
ray@hakai.org
Role
Author
Responsible Party 4
Affiliation
Hakai Institute
Email
data@hakai.org
Role
Publisher
Responsible Party 5
Name
Keith Holmes
Affiliation
Hakai Institute
Email
keith.holmes@hakai.org
Role
Publisher
Distributor
Distributor 1
Name
Maartje C. Korver
Affiliation
Hakai Institute - McGill University
Email
maartje.korver@mail.mcgill.ca
Role
Distributor
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Temporal Extent
Begin
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End
2019-04-01
Vertical Extent
Min
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Default Locale English
Citation identifier
Code
10.21966/zvwf-qn04
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McGill University</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:phone> <cit:CI_Telephone> <cit:number> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:number> </cit:CI_Telephone> </cit:phone> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> <cit:onlineResource> <cit:CI_OnlineResource> <cit:linkage> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:linkage> <cit:protocol> <gco:CharacterString>WWW:LINK</gco:CharacterString> </cit:protocol> <cit:function> <cit:CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode" codeListValue="information"/> </cit:function> </cit:CI_OnlineResource> </cit:onlineResource> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:individual> <cit:CI_Individual> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Maartje C. Korver</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>maartje.korver@mail.mcgill.ca</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:positionName> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:positionName> </cit:CI_Individual> </cit:individual> </cit:CI_Organisation> </cit:party> </cit:CI_Responsibility> </cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:CI_Responsibility> <cit:role> <cit:CI_RoleCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_RoleCode" codeListValue="author"/> </cit:role> <cit:party> <cit:CI_Organisation> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Hakai Institute - McGill University</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:phone> <cit:CI_Telephone> <cit:number> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:number> </cit:CI_Telephone> </cit:phone> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> <cit:onlineResource> <cit:CI_OnlineResource> <cit:linkage> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:linkage> <cit:protocol> <gco:CharacterString>WWW:LINK</gco:CharacterString> </cit:protocol> <cit:function> <cit:CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode" codeListValue="information"/> </cit:function> </cit:CI_OnlineResource> </cit:onlineResource> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:individual> <cit:CI_Individual> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Maartje C. Korver</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>maartje.korver@mail.mcgill.ca</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:positionName> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:positionName> </cit:CI_Individual> </cit:individual> </cit:CI_Organisation> </cit:party> </cit:CI_Responsibility> </cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:CI_Responsibility> <cit:role> <cit:CI_RoleCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_RoleCode" codeListValue="originator"/> </cit:role> <cit:party> <cit:CI_Organisation> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Hakai Institute - Vancouver Island University</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:phone> <cit:CI_Telephone> <cit:number> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:number> </cit:CI_Telephone> </cit:phone> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString>Canada</gco:CharacterString> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>Bill.Floyd@viu.ca</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> <cit:onlineResource> <cit:CI_OnlineResource> <cit:linkage> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:linkage> <cit:protocol> <gco:CharacterString>WWW:LINK</gco:CharacterString> </cit:protocol> <cit:function> <cit:CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode" codeListValue="information"/> </cit:function> </cit:CI_OnlineResource> </cit:onlineResource> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:individual> <cit:CI_Individual> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>William C. Floyd</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>Bill.Floyd@viu.ca</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:positionName> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:positionName> </cit:CI_Individual> </cit:individual> </cit:CI_Organisation> </cit:party> </cit:CI_Responsibility> </cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:CI_Responsibility> <cit:role> <cit:CI_RoleCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_RoleCode" codeListValue="author"/> </cit:role> <cit:party> <cit:CI_Organisation> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Hakai Institute</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:phone> <cit:CI_Telephone> <cit:number> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:number> </cit:CI_Telephone> </cit:phone> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString>Canada</gco:CharacterString> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>data@hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> <cit:onlineResource> <cit:CI_OnlineResource> <cit:linkage> <gco:CharacterString>www.hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:linkage> <cit:protocol> <gco:CharacterString>WWW:LINK</gco:CharacterString> </cit:protocol> <cit:function> <cit:CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode" codeListValue="information"/> </cit:function> </cit:CI_OnlineResource> </cit:onlineResource> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:individual> <cit:CI_Individual> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Ray Brunsting</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>ray@hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:positionName> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:positionName> </cit:CI_Individual> </cit:individual> </cit:CI_Organisation> </cit:party> </cit:CI_Responsibility> </cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:CI_Responsibility> <cit:role> <cit:CI_RoleCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_RoleCode" codeListValue="publisher"/> </cit:role> <cit:party> <cit:CI_Organisation> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Hakai Institute</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:phone> <cit:CI_Telephone> <cit:number> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:number> </cit:CI_Telephone> </cit:phone> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString>Canada</gco:CharacterString> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>data@hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> <cit:onlineResource> <cit:CI_OnlineResource> <cit:linkage> <gco:CharacterString>www.hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:linkage> <cit:protocol> <gco:CharacterString>WWW:LINK</gco:CharacterString> </cit:protocol> <cit:function> <cit:CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode" codeListValue="information"/> </cit:function> </cit:CI_OnlineResource> </cit:onlineResource> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> </cit:CI_Organisation> </cit:party> </cit:CI_Responsibility> </cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:citedResponsibleParty> <cit:CI_Responsibility> <cit:role> <cit:CI_RoleCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_RoleCode" codeListValue="publisher"/> </cit:role> <cit:party> <cit:CI_Organisation> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Hakai Institute</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:phone> <cit:CI_Telephone> <cit:number> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:number> </cit:CI_Telephone> </cit:phone> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString>Canada</gco:CharacterString> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>data@hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> <cit:onlineResource> <cit:CI_OnlineResource> <cit:linkage> <gco:CharacterString>www.hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:linkage> <cit:protocol> <gco:CharacterString>WWW:LINK</gco:CharacterString> </cit:protocol> <cit:function> <cit:CI_OnLineFunctionCode codeList="https://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode" codeListValue="information"/> </cit:function> </cit:CI_OnlineResource> </cit:onlineResource> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:individual> <cit:CI_Individual> <cit:name> <gco:CharacterString>Keith Holmes</gco:CharacterString> </cit:name> <cit:contactInfo> <cit:CI_Contact> <cit:address> <cit:CI_Address> <cit:deliveryPoint> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:deliveryPoint> <cit:city> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:city> <cit:country> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:country> <cit:electronicMailAddress> <gco:CharacterString>keith.holmes@hakai.org</gco:CharacterString> </cit:electronicMailAddress> </cit:CI_Address> </cit:address> </cit:CI_Contact> </cit:contactInfo> <cit:positionName> <gco:CharacterString/> </cit:positionName> </cit:CI_Individual> </cit:individual> </cit:CI_Organisation> </cit:party> </cit:CI_Responsibility> </cit:citedResponsibleParty> </cit:CI_Citation> </mri:citation> <mri:abstract xsi:type="lan:PT_FreeText_PropertyType"> <gco:CharacterString>General field methods In natural streams it is not possible to continuously measure stream discharge, thus an indirect approach was used: river height (stage) was continuously measured at a gauging station using a pressure transducer and periodic discharge measurements were taken along the range of potential stages to develop a stage-discharge rating curve. Detailed description of the measurement methods outlined below can be found in the supplement section of Oliver et al. (2017). Pressure transducers were installed in the fall of 2013 at watershed 708 and in the fall of 2014 at the other watersheds (Table 1). Low flows were manually measured using the velocity-area method, with either a Swoffer Current Velocimeter or a Sontek Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Stream flows, generally greater than 0.5 m3/s, were measured using the salt dilution method, either manually (dry salt) or remotely (starting in the fall of 2015) using a fully automated system. The automated salt dilution (auto-salt) system releases pre-defined volumes of salt solution at pre-defined water stages, with two electrical conductivity sensors permanently located down-stream, to measure the salt wave passing through. Data are available in near real-time using the Hakai Telemetry Network (www.hakai.org/technology/#science-1). A calibration factor, required for the salt dilution method, was manually calculated at a minimum twice per barrel refill of salt solution, once at the initial fill and the other with the remaining solution before re-fill.   General data QC and analysis Stage-discharge rating curves are not static but shift over time due to changes in the morphology of river channels, often associated with flood events. Therefore, rating curves are updated regularly. Korver et al. (2018) developed the first rating curves in 2015 and performed a detailed analysis of uncertainty of these rating curves. A concise description of rating curve plotting methods can be found in the supplement section of Oliver et al. (2017). However, this method has been substantially altered since and a summary of the current method used is described below. All discharge measurements are assigned a relative uncertainty, based on fluctuations in the flow velocity profile (for area-velocity method), or based on the uncertainty in the volume of salt solution, the EC sensor resolution and the EC sensor calibration factor (for salt dilution method). Measurements with uncertainties higher than 20%, with noise or malfunctioning conductivity sensors, or with high uncertainties in stage monitoring are excluded from further analysis. The remaining stage-discharge measurements are plotted using a LOWESS regression that accounts for scatter in the stage-discharge data and multi-section rating curves. Uncertainty of derived discharge data is quantified by plotting confidence intervals (CI) around the rating curve. Following the methodology proposed by Coxon et al. (2015), these CI's are derived from 500 curve fitting results of LOWESS regressions on a randomized set of stage-discharge measurements and their maximum and minimum value of error. Using LOWESS regression is considered an improvement from using fixed power-law shaped functions (previously used method), as LOWESS has no defined shape and can therefore fit data more precise. Especially the determination of confidence intervals using LOWESS provides more realistic results as the previous CI algorithm is intended for linear functions and therefore needs to be log transformed. This results in unrealistic small CI's in the low flow end and unrealistic high CI's in the high flow end of the rating curve. This discharge time-series was created using 5-minute average stage measurements that are Quality Controlled (QC), flagged and corrected where needed (Table 2). Generally, data gaps that were filled as well as noisy, faulty data that were corrected were assigned an ‘EV’ – Estimated Value flag. Suspicious data points that could not be corrected and estimated were assigned an ‘SVC’ – Suspicious Value Caution flag. All other data points were flagged ‘AV’ – Accepted Value. QC flags assigned to stage data were automatically copied to the corresponding 5-minute discharge calculations. Only flows greater than the highest measured discharge were assigned an additional 'SVC' flag, because the extrapolation of a rating curve beyond a set of measurements is usually highly uncertain and can greatly over or under estimate discharge. Hourly, daily, monthly and yearly discharge rates, as well as hourly, daily, monthly and yearly discharge volumes are calculated from 5-minute discharge data as described in Table 3.</gco:CharacterString> <lan:PT_FreeText> <lan:textGroup> <lan:LocalisedCharacterString locale="#fr">Méthodes générales sur le terrain Dans les cours d'eau naturels, il n'est pas possible de mesurer en continu le débit du cours d'eau, c'est pourquoi une approche indirecte a été utilisée : la hauteur de la rivière (étape) a été mesurée en continu à une station de jaugeage à l'aide d'un transducteur de pression et des mesures de débit périodiques ont été prises le long de la plage des étapes potentielles pour développer courbe de débit. Une description détaillée des méthodes de mesure décrites ci-dessous se trouve dans la section supplément d'Oliver et al. (2017). Des capteurs de pression ont été installés à l'automne 2013 dans le bassin versant 708 et à l'automne 2014 dans les autres bassins versants (tableau 1). Les faibles débits ont été mesurés manuellement à l'aide de la méthode vitesse-surface, à l'aide d'un vélocimètre à courant Swoffer ou d'un vélocimètre Doppler acoustique Sontek. Les débits des cours d'eau, généralement supérieurs à 0,5 m3/s, ont été mesurés à l'aide de la méthode de dilution du sel, soit manuellement (sel sec), soit à distance (à partir de l'automne 2015) à l'aide d'un système entièrement automatisé. Le système automatisé de dilution du sel (auto-sel) libère des volumes prédéfinis de solution saline à des niveaux d'eau prédéfinis, avec deux sondes de conductivité électrique situées en permanence en aval, pour mesurer la vague de sel qui passe à travers. Les données sont disponibles en temps quasi réel à l'aide du réseau de télémétrie Hakai (www.hakai.org/technology/ #science -1). Un facteur d'étalonnage, requis pour la méthode de dilution au sel, a été calculé manuellement à au moins deux fois par recharge de baril de solution saline, une fois au remplissage initial et l'autre avec la solution restante avant le remplissage. CQ et analyse des données générales Les courbes d'évaluation du débit par étapes ne sont pas statiques mais changent dans le temps en raison de changements dans la morphologie des chenaux fluviaux, souvent associés à des inondations. Par conséquent, les courbes de notation sont mises à jour régulièrement. Korver et al. (2018) ont développé les premières courbes d'évaluation en 2015 et ont effectué une analyse détaillée de l'incertitude de ces courbes d'évaluation. Une description concise des méthodes de traçage de la courbe d'évaluation se trouve dans la section supplément d'Oliver et al. (2017). Cependant, cette méthode a été sensiblement modifiée depuis et un résumé de la méthode actuelle utilisée est décrit ci-dessous. Toutes les mesures de débit se voient attribuer une incertitude relative, basée sur les fluctuations du profil de vitesse d'écoulement (pour la méthode surface-vitesse), ou sur la base de l'incertitude du volume de solution saline, de la résolution du capteur CE et du facteur d'étalonnage du capteur CE (pour la méthode de dilution au sel). Les mesures avec des incertitudes supérieures à 20 %, avec des capteurs de bruit ou de conductivité défectueux, ou avec des incertitudes élevées dans la surveillance des étages sont exclues d'une analyse plus approfondie. Les autres mesures de débit de l'étage sont tracées à l'aide d'une régression LOWESS qui tient compte de la dispersion dans les données de débit de l'étage et les courbes d'évaluation multi-sections. L'incertitude des données dérivées sur les débits est quantifiée en traçant les intervalles de confiance (IC) autour de la courbe d'évaluation. Suivant la méthodologie proposée par Coxon et al. (2015), ces IC sont dérivés de 500 résultats d'ajustement de courbe de régressions LOWESS sur un ensemble aléatoire de mesures de débit par étapes et leurs valeurs d'erreur maximale et minimale. L'utilisation de la régression LOWESS est considérée comme une amélioration par rapport à l'utilisation de fonctions en forme de loi de puissance fixe (méthode utilisée précédemment), car LOWESS n'a pas de forme définie et peut donc ajuster les données avec plus de précision. En particulier, la détermination des intervalles de confiance à l'aide de LOWESS fournit des résultats plus réalistes, car l'algorithme d'IC précédent est destiné aux fonctions linéaires et doit donc être transformé logarithmique. Il en résulte de petits IC irréalistes dans le bas débit et des IC élevés irréalistes dans l'extrémité haut débit de la courbe de notation. Cette série chronologique de rejets a été créée à l'aide de mesures d'étapes moyennes de 5 minutes qui sont contrôlées par la qualité (CQ), signalées et corrigées au besoin (tableau 2). En général, les lacunes de données qui ont été comblées ainsi que les données bruyantes et défectueuses qui ont été corrigées ont reçu un indicateur « EV » — Valeur estimée. Les points de données suspects qui n'ont pas pu être corrigés et estimés ont reçu un indicateur « SVC » — Mise en garde des valeurs suspectes. Tous les autres points de données étaient marqués « AV » — Valeur acceptée. Les indicateurs de CQ attribués aux données d'étape ont été automatiquement copiés dans les calculs de débit correspondants de 5 minutes. Seuls les débits supérieurs au débit mesuré le plus élevé ont reçu un indicateur « SVC » supplémentaire, car l'extrapolation d'une courbe d'évaluation au-delà d'un ensemble de mesures est généralement très incertaine et peut largement surestimer ou sous-estimer le débit. Les taux de rejet horaires, quotidiens, mensuels et annuels, ainsi que les volumes de rejet horaires, quotidiens, mensuels et annuels sont calculés à partir des données de rejet de 5 minutes décrites dans le tableau 3.</lan:LocalisedCharacterString> </lan:textGroup> </lan:PT_FreeText> </mri:abstract> <mri:credit> <gco:CharacterString/> </mri:credit> <mri:status> <mcc:MD_ProgressCode codeList="http://standards.iso.org/iso/19115/resources/Codelists/cat/codelists.xml#MD_ProgressCode" codeListValue="completed"> </mcc:MD_ProgressCode> </mri:status> <mri:topicCategory> <mri:MD_TopicCategoryCode>oceans</mri:MD_TopicCategoryCode> </mri:topicCategory> <mri:extent> <gex:EX_Extent> <gex:geographicElement> <gex:EX_GeographicBoundingBox> <gex:extentTypeCode> <gco:Boolean>true</gco:Boolean> </gex:extentTypeCode> <gex:westBoundLongitude> <gco:Decimal>-128.13265424</gco:Decimal> </gex:westBoundLongitude> <gex:eastBoundLongitude> <gco:Decimal>-127.95907025</gco:Decimal> </gex:eastBoundLongitude> <gex:southBoundLatitude> <gco:Decimal>51.60936247</gco:Decimal> </gex:southBoundLatitude> <gex:northBoundLatitude> <gco:Decimal>51.69558793</gco:Decimal> </gex:northBoundLatitude> </gex:EX_GeographicBoundingBox> </gex:geographicElement> </gex:EX_Extent> </mri:extent> <mri:extent> <gex:EX_Extent> <gex:verticalElement> <gex:EX_VerticalExtent> <gex:minimumValue> <gco:Real>0.0</gco:Real> </gex:minimumValue> <gex:maximumValue> <gco:Real>0.0</gco:Real> </gex:maximumValue> <gex:verticalCRSId> <mrs:MD_ReferenceSystem> <mrs:referenceSystemIdentifier> <mcc:MD_Identifier> <mcc:code> <gco:CharacterString>5831</gco:CharacterString> </mcc:code> <mcc:codeSpace> <gco:CharacterString>EPSG</gco:CharacterString> </mcc:codeSpace> <mcc:version> <gco:CharacterString>2012-08-10</gco:CharacterString> </mcc:version> <mcc:description> <gco:CharacterString>EPSG::5831 - Instantaneous Water Level depth - Depth relative to instantaneous water level uncorrected for tide. 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Organization 8098fd34-269d-46b0-b2a3-5349e3f6475e
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