Water column carbonate system measurements from the Pacific Salmon Foundation Citizen Science Program stations from July 2016 to October 2017 in the northern Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada

pCO2 and TCO2 measurements were made on seawater collected from 2 depths at up to 10 stations from the Baynes Sound, Lund and Powell River patrols of the Pacific Salmon Foundation’s Citizen Science Program, approximately every 2 to 3 weeks from July 2016 to October 2016 and from March 2017 to October 2017. Seawater was collected in General Oceanics niskin bottles at 0 and 20 m depths using a calibrated line meter on the sampling vessel. Seawater temperature was determined at the time of sample collection with NIST-traceable thermometers (VWR PN 23609-176). Seawater samples were preserved with mercuric chloride immediately upon sample collection. Laboratory temperature and seawater salinity were determined at the time of sample analysis at the Quadra Island Field Station (QIFS) using NIST traceable thermometers and a YSI MultiLab 4010-1 with a MultiLab IDS 4310 conductivity and temperature probe. The YSI probe was calibrated using certified reference materials of known salinity prior to seawater sample analysis. For detailed protocols on sample collection, data processing including CO2 system determination, and quality assurance, please see Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Note alkalinity (Alk) here is assumed here to consist of carbonate, bicarbonate, borate, hydroxide, and hydrogen ions; neglecting the influence of nutrients and organic acids. The effort to collect these data are part of the Hakai Institute’s directive to advance the understanding of carbon cycling in northeast Pacific coastal settings with specific emphasis on ocean acidification.

Cite as: Hare, A., Pocock, K., Evans, W., and C. Weekes. (2018). Water column carbonate system measurements from the Pacific Salmon Foundation Citizen Science Program stations from July 2016 to October 2017 in the northern Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Version 1.0. Hakai Institute. Dataset. [access date].

Type of Study: seasonal near bi-weekly 2-depth discrete seawater sample record

Temporal Coverage: July 26, 2016 to October 19, 2016, and March 3, 2017 to October 19, 2017

Spatial Coverage: Seawater collected by Niskin bottles at 0 m and 20 m depths at the Pacific Salmon Foundation’s Citizen Science Program stations BS1: 49.608, -124.867; BS3: 49.692, -124.667; BS6: 49.485, -124.605; BS7: 49.483, -124.767; LD1: 49.997, -124.822; LD2: 49.963, -124.857; LD3: 50.02, -124.882; PR6: 49.86, -125.027; PR7: 49.905, -124.988; PR8: 49.922, -124.92; northern Salish Sea

Geographic Names: Baynes Sound; Lund; Powell River; Northern Salish Sea; British Columbia coast; North Pacific Ocean

Location of organism collection: N/A

Platforms: N/A

Version: 1.0

Submission Date: September 21, 2018

Filename: PSF_2016_2017_submission_20180921

Column Header Information: (1) Sample.date (Microsoft Excel date; yyyy-mm-dd); (2) Flag; (3) Patrol; (4) Station; (5) Latitude (decimal degree); (6) Longitude (decimal degree); (7) Sample.time (Microsoft Excel time; hh:mm:ss; 24 hour format); (8) Depth (metres); (9) Field.temperature (°C); (10) Salinity (PSS-78); (11) TCO2 (mol kg-1); (12) Alkalinity (µmol kg-1); (13) pHT; (14) pCO2 (µatm); (15) aragonite saturation; (16) calcite saturation

Description of quality flags: 1 = good data, 2 = replicate, 3 = questionable, 4 = not a number (NaN). Note questionable replicates receive a flag change from 2 to 3. Data were nominally flagged as questionable if they exceeded the boundaries of 2x the root mean squared error of the TA/S regression from the dataset, if they were noted as handled unusually in the field, or if unusual observations were noted during lab processing.

Description of CO2 system parameters:

Total inorganic carbon Abbreviation: TCO2 Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: measurements from discrete seawater sample bottle In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: measured TCO2 with correction factor from analysis of certified reference material (CRM; A. Dickson) applied. Correction factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.01 Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle triggered with messenger Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected using Niskin bottles deployed along a wire and triggered using messengers. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles using a section of silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater TCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at the QIFS via acidification and flow-balanced gas stripping followed by non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450, 750, and 1500 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.). TCO2 calibrated using solutions of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in deionized water prepared to have target TCO2 concentrations (nominally 800, 1600, and 2400 µmol kg-1) with Alk adjusted to give solution pCO2 near that of ambient room air. Standardization frequency: at the start and end of each daily analysis sequence CRM manufacturer: A. Dickson, Scripps Institute of Oceanography Poison name: mercuric chloride Poison volume: 200 µl Poison correction: saturated solution Uncertainty: 0.3% Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Alex Hare Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Alkalinity Abbreviation: TAlk Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from pCO2 measured at laboratory temperature with the BoL, and TCO2 adjusted to account for the change due to bubbling headspace gas through the sample (Wanninkhof and Thoning, 1993) using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Wanninkhof, R., and Thoning, K. (1993). Measurement of fugacity of CO2 in surface water using continuous and discrete sampling methods. Marine Chemistry 44, 189-204; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Alex Hare Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

pCO2 at in situ temperature and pressure
Abbreviation: pCO2 Unit: µatm Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, salinity, field temperature, depth in metres as an approximation of pressure, and the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al. (2000). The error in the difference between the maximum depth sampled of 20 m and the pressure at 20 m depth in decibar is negligible within the accuracy of pCO2 measurement used in this study. Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Alex Hare Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

pH on the total hydrogen ion scale Abbreviation: pH_T Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, salinity, field temperature, depth in metres as an approximation of pressure, and the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al. (2000). The error in the difference between the maximum depth sampled of 20 m and the pressure at 20 m depth in decibar is negligible within the accuracy of pCO2 measurement used in this study. Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Alex Hare Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Aragonite saturation Abbreviation: OmegaAR Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, salinity, field temperature, depth in metres as an approximation of pressure, and the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al. (2000). The error in the difference between the maximum depth sampled of 20 m and the pressure at 20 m depth in decibar is negligible within the accuracy of pCO2 measurement used in this study. Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Alex Hare Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Calcite saturation Abbreviation: OmegaCA Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, salinity, field temperature, depth in metres as an approximation of pressure, and the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al. (2000). The error in the difference between the maximum depth sampled of 20 m and the pressure at 20 m depth in decibar is negligible within the accuracy of pCO2 measurement used in this study. Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Alex Hare Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Researcher Contact: Please direct questions regarding these data or requests for processing descriptions to Alex Hare (alex.hare@hakai.org).

Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Access and Use

Licence: Appropriate credit must be given to Hakai Institute and the authors of the dataset.

Data and Resources

Dates

Metadata Created October 26, 2018, 22:48 (UTC)
Metadata Updated October 26, 2018, 22:48 (UTC)
Reference Date(s) 2018-08-07 (Creation)
2018-08-07 (Publication)
Frequency of Update
Metadata Date October 17, 2018, 21:33 (UTC)

Dataset extent

Map data © OpenStreetMap contributors

Additional Info

Field Value
Contact Email data@hakai.org
encoding utf8
metadata-language eng
progress completed
resource-type dataset
Responsible Party Hakai Institute (Point of Contact, Processor)
spatial-reference-system 3005