Water column CO2 system measurements collected during the 2016 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration West Coast Ocean Acidification survey (NOAA WCOA2016) from California to British Columbia

Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) measurements were made on seawater collected from 12 depths at select stations occupied during the 2016 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration West Coast Ocean Acidification survey (NOAA WCOA2016) from California to British Columbia. NOAA cruise data collected during this survey are available from the National Centers for Environmental Information (https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/Coastal/WCOA.html). Hakai Institute staff (Evans) collected data only during the second leg of the survey from May 24 to June 7. Information describing the cruise plan and cruise blog can be found on the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) website (https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/2016+West+Coast+Ocean+Acidification+Cruise). Seawater sampling during this cruise was conducted using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiler coupled with a 24-Niskin (11-L) bottle rosette. Seawater collection was concentrated in the upper 200 m at standard depths: 3 m, 10 m, 20 m, 30 m, 50 m, 80 m, 100 m, 125 m, 150 m, and 200 m. Two additional deeper depths were sampled when the water column exceeded 200 m. Additional shallow depths were sampled at the Hakai Institute’s oceanographic station QU39 (http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.715738). Samples were drawn from the Niskin bottles with care not to introduce bubbles into 350 mL amber glass bottles using silicone tubing, and left with 3 mL of headspace. Samples were then fixed with 200 µL of mercuric chloride and crimp-sealed with polyethylene-lined metal caps. Samples were stored in the dark and at room temperature until analysis on the Hakai Institute’s Burke-o-Lator (BoL). For detailed protocols on data processing including CO2 system determination, and quality assurance, please see Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Final CO2 system parameters (pHT, pCO2, and aragonite saturature state) were computed using (primary) CTD temperature and salinity, and BoL determined total CO2 (TCO2) corrected using certified reference materials and alkalinity (Alk) using the carbonic acid dissociation constants of Lueker et al. (2000). Calculations were done relative to in situ pressure. Note Alk here is assumed here to consist of carbonate, bicarbonate, borate, hydroxide, and hydrogen ions; neglecting the influence of nutrients and organic acids. The effort to collect these data are part of the Hakai Institute’s directive to advance the understanding of carbon cycling in northeast Pacific coastal settings with specific emphasis on ocean acidification.

Cite as: Evans, W., K. Pocock, and A. Hare. (2018). Water column CO2 system measurements collected during the 2016 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration West Coast Ocean Acidification survey (NOAA WCOA2016) from California to British Columbia. Version 1.0. Hakai Institute. Dataset. [access date].

Type of Study: large-scale coastal ocean acidification survey

Temporal Coverage: May 24, 2016 to June 7, 2016

Spatial Coverage: Seawater was collected at selected stations during the NOAA WCOA2016 survey (Figure 1) and concentrated in the upper 200 m standard depths: 3 m, 10 m, 20 m, 30 m, 50 m, 80 m, 100 m, 125 m, 150 m, and 200 m. Two additional deeper depths were sampled when the water column exceeded 200 m. Additional shallow depths were sampled at the Hakai Institute’s oceanographic station QU39.

Figure 1: Distribution of NOAA WCOA2016 stations sampled by the Hakai Institute.

Geographic Names: Northern Salish Sea; British Columbia coast; Washington coast; Oregon coast; California coast; North Pacific Ocean

Location of organism collection: N/A

Platforms: NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown

Version: 1.0

Submission Date: September 28, 2018

Filename: WCOA2016_Hakai_Data_submitted

Column Header Information: (1)YEAR_UTC (2)MONTH_UTC (3)DAY_UTC (4) time hhmmss (5)LATITUDE_DEC (6)LONGITUDE_DEC (7)cast # (8)pressure (9)Salinity (primary; PSS-78) (10) temperature (primary; °C) (11) Sigma_t (kg/m3) (12) dissolved oxygen (primary; umol/kg) (13) Analysis_T (14) TCO2_adjusted (umol/kg) (15)TCO2_CRM_Corrected (umol/kg) (16)pCO2_anal_T (uatm) (17)Alk (umol/kg) (18) pCO2_insitu_T_P (uatm) (19)pH_total (20) omega_arag (21) QC flag

Description of quality control (QC) flags: 1 = good data, 2 = questionable. A QC flag of 2 was given to samples that were analyzed without bracketed analyses of certified reference material (provided by A. Dickson, Scripps Institute of Oceanography) or contained NaN’s.

Description of CO2 system parameters:

total inorganic carbon Abbreviation: TCO2_CRM_Corrected Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: measurements from discrete seawater sample bottle In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: measured TCO2 with correction factor from analysis of certified reference material (CRM; A. Dickson) applied. Correction factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.01 Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle triggered with messenger Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected from depth using Niskin bottles deployed along a wire and triggered using messengers. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles using a section of silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater TCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at the QIFS via acidification and flow-balanced gas stripping followed by non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: Triplicate samples were collected at randomly selected stations and depths throughout the research cruise. Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450, 750, and 1500 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.). TCO2 calibrated using solutions of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in deionized water prepared to have target TCO2 concentrations (nominally 800, 1600, and 2400 µmol kg-1) with Alk adjusted to give solution pCO2 near that of ambient room air. Standardization frequency: at the start and end of each daily analysis sequence CRM manufacturer: A. Dickson, Scripps Institute of Oceanography Poison name: mercuric chloride Poison volume: 200 µl Poison correction: saturated solution Uncertainty: 0.3% Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at analysis temperature Abbreviation: pCO2@analysisT Unit: µatm Observation type: measurements from discrete seawater sample bottle In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from measured CO2 mole fractions (xCO2) and ambient atmospheric pressure Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle triggered with messenger Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected from depth using Niskin bottles deployed along a wire and triggered using messengers. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles using a section of silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater pCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at the QIFS via recirculated-headspace gas equilibration and non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: Triplicate samples were collected at randomly selected stations and depths throughout the research cruise. Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450, 750, and 1500 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.) Standardization frequency: at the start and end of each daily analysis sequence CRM manufacturer: Scott-Marrin, Inc or Praxair Distribution Inc Poison name: mercuric chloride Poison volume: 200 µl Poison correction: saturated solution Uncertainty: 1.5% Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

alkalinity Abbreviation: Alk Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from pCO2@analysisT and TCO2 adjusted (TCO2_adjusted) to account for the change due to bubbling headspace gas through the sample (Wanninkhof and Thoning, 1993) using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Wanninkhof, R., and Thoning, K. (1993). Measurement of fugacity of CO2 in surface water using continuous and discrete sampling methods. Marine Chemistry 44, 189-204; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

pCO2 at in situ temperature and pressure
Abbreviation: pCO2_insitu_T_P Unit: µatm Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

pH on the total hydrogen ion scale Abbreviation: pH_Total Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Aragonite saturation Abbreviation: omega_arag Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Researcher Contact: Please direct questions regarding these data or requests for processing descriptions to Wiley Evans (wiley.evans@hakai.org).

Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

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Licence: Appropriate credit must be given to Hakai Institute and the authors of the dataset.

Data and Resources

Dates

Metadata Created October 26, 2018, 22:48 (UTC)
Metadata Updated October 26, 2018, 22:48 (UTC)
Reference Date(s) 2018-09-10 (Creation)
2018-09-10 (Publication)
Frequency of Update
Metadata Date October 16, 2018, 22:20 (UTC)

Dataset extent

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Contact Email data@hakai.org
encoding utf8
metadata-language eng
progress completed
resource-type dataset
Responsible Party Hakai Institute (Point of Contact, Processor)
spatial-reference-system 3005