Water column CO2 system measurements from Hakai Oceanographic station QU39 from January 2016 to December 2017 in northern Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada

pCO2 and TCO2 measurements were made on seawater collected from 12 depths at the Hakai oceanographic station QU39 in the northern Salish Sea approximately every two weeks from January 2016 to December 2017. Temperature, salinity, and pressure data were also captured using CTD profilers (either Sea-Bird Electronics or RBR units following best practices) at the time of seawater collection, and profile data was extracted for the depth at which Niskin bottles were tripped. Niskin bottle depth was determined by calibrated line meter on the research vessel and verified occasionally using RBR Solo pressure sensors. Temperature was also determined at the time of fixing the seawater samples with mercuric chloride aboard the Hakai research vessel using NIST traceable thermometers (VWR PN 23609-176). Finally, temperature and salinity were determined at the time of sample analysis at the Quadra Island Field Station (QIFS) using NIST traceable thermometers and a YSI MultiLab 4010-1 with a MultiLab IDS 4310 conductivity and temperature probe. The YSI probe was calibrated using certified reference materials of known salinity prior to seawater sample analysis. For detailed protocols on sample collection, data processing including CO2 system determination, and quality assurance, please see Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Note alkalinity (Alk) here is assumed here to consist of carbonate, bicarbonate, borate, hydroxide, and hydrogen ions; neglecting the influence of nutrients and organic acids. The effort to collect these data are part of the Hakai Institute’s directive to advance the understanding of carbon cycling in northeast Pacific coastal settings with specific emphasis on ocean acidification.

Cite as: Evans, W., K. Pocock, A. Hare, and C. Weekes. (2018). Water column CO2 system measurements from Hakai Oceanographic station QU39 from January 2016 to December 2017 in northern Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Version 1.0. Hakai Institute. Dataset. [access date].

Type of Study: near bi-weekly 12-depth discrete seawater sample record

Temporal Coverage: January 19, 2016 to December 12, 2017

Spatial Coverage: Seawater collected by Niskin bottles at 0 m, 5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 30 m, 40 m, 50 m, 75 m, 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, and bottom water (nominally 260 m) at the Hakai oceanographic station QU39; northern Salish Sea; 50.0307°N, 125.0992°W

Geographic Names: Hakai oceanographic station QU39; Northern Salish Sea; British Columbia coast; North Pacific Ocean

Location of organism collection: N/A

Platforms: N/A

Version: 1.0

Submission Date: September 21, 2018

Filename: QU39_data_submission

Column Header Information: (1) serial date number (SDN) (2) Microsoft Excel date (3) Depth (m) (4) NIST temp (°C) (5) YSI salinity (PSS-78) (6) CRM corrected TCO2 (µmol kg-1) (7) Alkalinity (µmol kg-1) (8) pCO2@analysisT (µatm) (9) NIST Analysis T (°C) (10) CTD pressure (dbar) (11) CTD temperature (°C) (12) CTD salinity (PSS-78) (13) pCO2@insituT&P (µatm) (14) pHT@insituT&P (15) aragonite saturation (16) calcite saturation (17) Revelle factor (18) quality flags

Description of quality flags: 1 = good data, 2 = replicate, 3 = questionable, 4 = not a number (NaN). Note questionable replicates receive a flag change from 2 to 3. Data were flagged as questionable if the comparison between YSI and CTD salinity for a sample showed a difference that exceeded 4x the root mean square error (RMSE) of the relationship between CTD and YSI salinity (0.15) and if pCO2@analysisT exceeded pCO2 determined from directly measured TCO2 and alkalinity predicted by the regional NSS relationship (Evans et al 2018) by 2x the hypothetical sensitivity of pCO2 to the RMSE in Alk(S) across the expected Alk:TCO2 range.

Description of CO2 system parameters:

total inorganic carbon Abbreviation: CRM corrected TCO2 Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: measurements from discrete seawater sample bottle In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: measured TCO2 with correction factor from analysis of certified reference material (CRM; A. Dickson) applied. Correction factors ranged from 0.99 to 1.01 Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle triggered with messenger Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected from depth using Niskin bottles deployed along a wire and triggered using messengers. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles using a section of silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater TCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at the QIFS via acidification and flow-balanced gas stripping followed by non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450, 750, and 1500 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.). TCO2 calibrated using solutions of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in deionized water prepared to have target TCO2 concentrations (nominally 800, 1600, and 2400 µmol kg-1) with Alk adjusted to give solution pCO2 near that of ambient room air. Standardization frequency: at the start and end of each daily analysis sequence CRM manufacturer: A. Dickson, Scripps Institute of Oceanography Poison name: mercuric chloride Poison volume: 200 µl Poison correction: saturated solution Uncertainty: 0.3% Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at analysis temperature Abbreviation: pCO2@analysisT Unit: µatm Observation type: measurements from discrete seawater sample bottle In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from measured CO2 mole fractions (xCO2) and ambient atmospheric pressure Sampling instrument: Niskin bottle triggered with messenger Analyzing instrument: Dakunalytics, LLC Burke-o-Lator (BoL) pCO2/TCO2 analyzer with LI-COR LI-840A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater was collected from depth using Niskin bottles deployed along a wire and triggered using messengers. Seawater was drawn into 350 mL amber glass bottles using a section of silicone tubing attached to the nipple of the Niskin bottle. Sample bottles were rinsed 3x, filled from the bottom with care not to introduce bubbles, and left with ~3 mL of headspace. Seawater pCO2 was subsequently measured on the BoL at the QIFS via recirculated-headspace gas equilibration and non-dispersive infrared gas analysis (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O). Protocols, analysis, and data handling details can be found in Pocock et al. (2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.521066). Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (nominally 150, 450, 750, and 1500 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.) Standardization frequency: at the start and end of each daily analysis sequence CRM manufacturer: Scott-Marrin, Inc or Praxair Distribution Inc Poison name: mercuric chloride Poison volume: 200 µl Poison correction: saturated solution Uncertainty: 1.5% Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

alkalinity Abbreviation: alkalinity Unit: µmol kg-1 Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from pCO2@analysisT and TCO2 adjusted to account for the change due to bubbling headspace gas through the sample (Wanninkhof and Thoning, 1993) using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Wanninkhof, R., and Thoning, K. (1993). Measurement of fugacity of CO2 in surface water using continuous and discrete sampling methods. Marine Chemistry 44, 189-204; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

pCO2 at in situ temperature and pressure
Abbreviation: pCO2@insituT&P Unit: µatm Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

pH on the total hydrogen ion scale Abbreviation: pHT Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Aragonite saturation Abbreviation: Aragonite saturation Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Calcite saturation Abbreviation: Calcite saturation Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Revelle Factor Abbreviation: Revelle Factor Unit: unit less Observation type: derived from direct measurements In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from CRM corrected TCO2, TA, CTD salinity, CTD temperature, and CTD pressure using the carbonic acid dissociation constants from Lueker et al., (2000). Analyzing instrument: N/A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: N/A Replicate information: N/A Standardization description: N/A Standardization frequency: N/A CRM manufacturer: N/A Poison name: N/A Poison volume: N/A Poison correction: N/A Uncertainty: N/A Quality flag convention: defined above Method reference: Hales, B., Suhrbier, A., Waldbusser, G.G., Feely, R.A., and Newton, J.A. (2016). The Carbonate Chemistry of the "Fattening Line," Willapa Bay, 2011-2014. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-12016-10136-12237; Lueker, T.J., Dickson, A.G., and Keeling, C.D. (2000). Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium. Marine Chemistry 70, 105-119. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

Researcher Contact: Please direct questions regarding these data or requests for processing descriptions to Wiley Evans (wiley.evans@hakai.org).

Researcher institution: Hakai Institute

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Licence: Appropriate credit must be given to Hakai Institute and the authors of the dataset.

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Dates

Metadata Created October 26, 2018, 22:48 (UTC)
Metadata Updated October 26, 2018, 22:48 (UTC)
Reference Date(s) 2018-08-25 (Creation)
2018-08-25 (Publication)
Frequency of Update
Metadata Date October 16, 2018, 22:47 (UTC)

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Contact Email data@hakai.org
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metadata-language eng
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resource-type dataset
Responsible Party Hakai Institute (Point of Contact, Processor)
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