Identification

Title

High-resolution record of surface seawater CO2 content from December 2014 to April 2016 collected in Hyacinthe Bay, British Columbia, Canada

Alternative title(s)

High-resolution record of surface seawater CO2 content from December 2014 to April 2016 collected in Hyacinthe Bay, British Columbia, Canada

Abstract

Quadra Island, at the northern terminus of the Salish Sea, has been a site for shore-based and high-resolution measurement of surface seawater CO2 content since December 2014. Measurements of in situ temperature, salinity, and CO2 partial pressure are made near-continuously from a seawater sample line with an intake 50 m from shore and at a depth of 1 m in Hyacinthe Bay on the eastern side of Quadra Island. The effort to collect these data are part of the Hakai Institute’s directive to advance the understanding of carbon cycling in northeast Pacific coastal settings with specific emphasis on sea-air CO2 exchange and ocean acidification. Type of Study: Continuous data record Temporal Coverage: December 14, 2014 to April 6, 2016 Spatial Coverage: Seawater drawn from 1-m depth approximately 50 m from shore in central Hyacinthe Bay; eastern Quadra Island; northern Salish Sea; 50.1160°N, 125.2220°W Geographic Names: Quadra Island; Northern Salish Sea; British Columbia coast; North Pacific Ocean Location of organism collection: N/A Platforms: Shore-side laboratory; Hakai Institute Quadra Island Field Station Version: 1.0 Submission Date: February 20, 2017 Variables: Partial pressure of carbon dioxide Abbreviation: pCO2 Unit: µatm Observation type: measurements from continuously flowing seawater stream In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from measured CO2 mole fractions (xCO2) and ambient atmospheric pressure. See methodology reference material below for more information. Sea surface temperature Abbreviation: SST Unit: °C, ITS-90 scale Observation type: measurements from continuously flowing seawater stream In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: measured Sampling instrument: N/A Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE 45 MicroTSG Thermosalinograph Detailed sampling and analyzing information: 2 sec data captured using National Instruments LabVIEW software on an HP laptop computer Uncertainty: 0.002°C Quality flag convention: no quality flag applied Method reference: Evans, W., J. T. Mathis, J. Ramsay, and J. Hetrick (2015), On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery, PLoS One, 10(7), e0130384, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130384. Researcher name: Wiley Evans Researcher institution: Hakai Institute Salinity Abbreviation: Salinity Unit: 1978 Practical Salinity Scale Observation type: measurements from continuously flowing seawater stream In-situ/Manipulation/Response variable: In situ observation Measured or calculated: calculated from conductivity and temperature measurements Sampling instrument: N/A Analyzing instrument: Sea-Bird SBE 45 MicroTSG Thermosalinograph Detailed sampling and analyzing information: 2 sec data captured using National Instruments LabVIEW software on an HP laptop computer Uncertainty: 0.003 S/m Quality flag convention: no quality flag applied Method reference: Evans, W., J. T. Mathis, J. Ramsay, and J. Hetrick (2015), On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery, PLoS One, 10(7), e0130384, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130384. Attribute Details: (1)yearday (2)Year (3) Matlab Time (4)Date (yyyymmdd) (5)Time (hhmmss) (6) pCO2 (uatm) (7)TSG_T (°C) (8)TSG_S (PSS-78) Researcher Contact: Please direct questions regarding these data or requests for processing code, 2-sec processed data, or processing descriptions to Wiley Evans (wiley.evans@hakai.org). Credit: Wiley Evans, Alex Hare, Katie Pocock Citation: Evans, W., A. Hare, and K. Pocock. (2017). High-resolution record of surface seawater CO2 content from December 2014 to April 2016 collected in Hyacinthe Bay, British Columbia, Canada. Version 1.0. Hakai Institute. Dataset. [access date]. Methodology Reference Material: Sampling instrument: showerhead equilibrator Analyzing instrument: Sunburst Sensors SuperCO2 with LI-COR LI-840A Detailed sampling and analyzing information: Seawater pCO2 data were calculated from corrected measurements of CO2 mixing ratio (xCO2) made using a Sunburst Sensors SuperCO2 System (http://www.sunburstsensors.com/products/oceanographic-carbon-dioxide-sensor-benchtop-li-cor.html) following protocols recommended by Pierrot et al. (2009) with the system theory and calculations described in detail elsewhere (Evans et al., 2011; 2012; 2013; Hales et al., 2004). Seawater continuously flowed first through the thermosalinograph and then through two (primary and secondary) showerhead equilibrators (Takahashi, 1961). The primary showerhead equilibrator supplied equilibrated carrier gas (marine air) to a non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer (LI-COR LI840A CO2/H2O) housed within the SuperCO2 system’s electronics box at a rate of ~50 ml min-1. Unaltered marine air was drawn from 0.25-inch polyethylene tubing that connected a vented water trap positioned outside of the Hakai Institute’s shore-side seawater flow-through laboratory to the secondary equilibrator. Marine air was pre-equilibrated in the secondary equilibrator, and then plumbed to the primary equilibrator as a make-up air supply to replace equilibrated carrier gas provided to the LI-COR. Pressure and temperature were continuously measured in the primary equilibrator using a Honeywell ASCX Microstructure Pressure Sensor and a Minco Fast Response RTD, respectively. Equilibrated carrier gas, three standard gases of known mixing ratio (150.4, 453 and 750 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.), and unaltered marine air were all plumbed to provide gas flow to the SuperCO2 system’s electronics box. The SuperCO2 system was controlled using National Instruments LabVIEW software run on an HP laptop computer. The software controls data acquisition from the thermosalinograph, the pressure and temperature sensors, and the LI-COR; while also controlling Valco Instruments Co. Inc. (VICI) multi-port actuators that cycle between the gas streams plumbed to the electronics box. None of the gas streams were dried prior to analysis, and all measurements were made at 0.5 Hz. The prescribed measurement scheme controlled by the software was initially to supply equilibrated carrier gas from the primary equilibrator to the LI-COR continuously for 240 minutes, then cycle the actuators to consecutively allow the three standard gas streams and unaltered marine air to be measured for 90 s at 100 ml min-1 before returning to sample the carrier gas equilibrated with seawater xCO2. After the first weeks of measurement, the time between standardization sequences was increased to once per day in order to preserve standard gas. From each sequence of standard gas measurements, the final 20 s of data in the 90 s interval before the actuator changed position were used to construct calibration functions that were then interpolated in time between standard gas sequences. These functions were then used to calibrate the xCO2 measurements of seawater equilibrated carrier gas, with an adjustment on the order of 1%. Corrected seawater xCO2 was subsequently adjusted for under-pressurization in the primary showerhead equilibrator using the ratio of equilibrator to vented LI-COR cell pressure, and then converted to pCO2 using atmospheric pressure measured by the LI-COR. The 2-s seawater pCO2, temperature and salinity data were quality controlled, and then bin-averaged in 5-min interval bins. SuperCO2 system accuracy was determined by comparing calibrated xCO2 measurements made on gas standards to known standard concentrations. Calibrated xCO2 were consistently within 2 ppm of the known value. Standardization description: xCO2 calibration functions developed during periodic sequential analysis of gas standards of known concentration (150.4, 453 and 750 ppm; Scott-Marin, Inc.) Standardization frequency: Every 4 hours for first weeks of, and then daily for the remainder of the record. CRM manufacturer: Scott-Marrin, Inc. Uncertainty: 2 ppm for calibrated xCO2; ~2 µatm for pCO2 Method reference: Evans, W., J. T. Mathis, J. Ramsay, and J. Hetrick (2015), On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery, PLoS One, 10(7), e0130384, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130384; Evans, W., B. Hales, and P. G. Strutton (2011), The seasonal cycle of surface ocean pCO2 on the Oregon shelf, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(C05012), doi: 10.1029/2010JC006625; Evans, W., B. Hales, P. G. Strutton, and D. Ianson (2012), Sea-air CO2 fluxes in the western Canadian coastal ocean, Progress in Oceanography, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.1001.1003; Evans, W., B. Hales, and P. G. Strutton (2013), pCO2 distributions and air-water CO2 fluxes in the Columbia River estuary, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 117, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2012.1012.1003; Hales, B., D. Chipman, and T. Takahashi (2004), High-frequency measurements of partial pressure and total concentration of carbon dioxide in seawater using microporous hydrophobic membrane contactors, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 2, 356-364; Pierrot, D., C. Neill, K. Sullivan, R. Castle, R. Wanninkhof, H. Lüger, T. Johannessen, A. Olsen, R. A. Feely, and C. E. Cosca (2009), Recommendations for autonomous underway pCO2 measuring systems and data-reduction routines, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56(8-10), 512-522, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.005; Takahashi, T. (1961), Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere and in Atlantic Ocean Water, Journal of Geophyiscal Research, 66(2), 477-494

Resource type

dataset

Resource locator

https://hecate.hakai.org/auth/access-request.php#

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name: Hakai Data Access Online Request Form

description: Online form for requesting access to particular datasets owned by Hakai

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name: Hakai's Google Drive Folder

description: Restricted Access Online Data Folder

http://dx.doi.org/10.21966/1.437736

protocol: WWW:LINK-1.0-http--partners

name: doi: 10.21966/1.437736

description: Digital Object Identifier for this dataset

Unique resource identifier

code

codeSpace

Dataset language

eng

Spatial reference system

code identifying the spatial reference system

Classification of spatial data and services

Topic category

oceans

geoscientificInformation

Keywords

Keyword set

keyword value

CO2

Keyword set

keyword value

TSG

quadra

salish sea

sea

ocean

acid

seawater

temperature

acidification

oceanography

surface

salt

salinity

shellfish

Geographic location

West bounding longitude

-125.2229619026184

East bounding longitude

-125.22092342376709

North bounding latitude

50.11764753238538

South bounding latitude

50.116395452024676

Temporal reference

Temporal extent

Begin position

End position

Dataset reference date

date type

creation

effective date

2016-03-28

date type

publication

effective date

2017-01-19

Frequency of update

Quality and validity

Lineage

Conformity

Data format

name of format

Text

version of format

1.0

Constraints related to access and use

Constraint set

Use constraints

Appropriate credit must be given to Hakai Institute and the authors of the dataset.

Responsible organisations

Responsible party

organisation name

Hakai Institute

full postal address

1713 Hyacinthe Bay Road

Heriot Bay

V0P 1H0

telephone number

+1 (250)-914-4055

email address

data@hakai.org

responsible party role

pointOfContact

Responsible party

organisation name

Hakai Institute

full postal address

1713 Hyacinthe Bay Road

Heriot Bay

V0P 1H0

telephone number

+1 (250)-914-4055

email address

data@hakai.org

responsible party role

pointOfContact

Responsible party

organisation name

Hakai Institute

full postal address

1713 Hyacinthe Bay Road

Heriot Bay

V0P 1H0

telephone number

+1 (250)-914-4055

email address

data@hakai.org

responsible party role

pointOfContact

Responsible party

organisation name

Hakai Institute

email address

responsible party role

processor

Metadata on metadata

Metadata point of contact

organisation name

Hakai Institute

email address

responsible party role

publisher

Metadata date

2018-10-17T21:39:16

Metadata language

eng